CREATIVITY IS A UNIVERSAL TALENT. IT MEANS EVERYONE IS BORN CREATIVE.
THE 5 QUALITIES OF CREATIVE PEOPLE: ARE YOU ONE, TOO?
Creativity is a universal talent. Everyone is born creative, although the degree of specific talent might vary from individual to individual. Just watch children play – they are uninhibited about their imagination and expression, and, most of all, have fun with what they do. In complex times such as now we are in dire need for creative and ingenious solutions to wicked problems.
Today, more than ever, needs creative imagination and passion. The writer Tom Robbins once said, “It is never too late to have a happy childhood”. It is also never late to be passionate about being creative. Benjamin Franklin said that “our whole life is but a greater and longer childhood.” So what are some of the qualities you find in people who manage to maintain this universal talent which many adults left behind in their childhood?
FLEXIBLE MIND: When someone is constantly fixated within the already existing boundaries of things in the face of situations requiring solution or change, there will most likely be no way out of trouble. Imagine. Dream. Don’t circle around in the same track. Jump off the track and think outside of the box. Work hard to make brilliant ideas reality.
EMBRACE CHAOS: Creativity thrives in messy surroundings. People working in creative fields often live and work in seemingly chaotic homes and studios. But don’t be fooled. What might look unruly and dishevelled to visitors actually are treasure troves of inspiration. For creative people, chaos is just another word for creative order.
KNOW YOUR PERSONAL STRENGTHS: Knowing one’s ego and talent sets you apart from others. Outstanding creative people throughout history always had a strong inner drive to externalize their visions. But having a self-conscious ego does not mean being arrogant and impolite to others. A great talent transcends into a beautiful reality when it is combined with character.
REAL MOTIVATION COMES FROM WITHIN: Ask someone who is in a creative job why he/she is doing it. They will most likely say it is because they like to do what they do. Psychologists call it “intrinsic motivation.” Creative people have a innate compulsion to create. They cannot help keep generating new ideas, experimenting with new forms, making drawings and building models, and having the irresistible desire to see their vision and inventions realized and presented to the world. A reward for the work one does is sweet. But without creative motivation and hard work, how can there be a reward?
HAVE FUN: Being creative is fun. The whole creative process from ideation and conceptualization to implementation is an immersive experience. Human beings are by nature made to play. Creative people like to mix work and pleasure. There is no question that people who enjoy their work also are much more creative, thus, perform far better than those who are doing their job because they are forced to work.
Adventurous toy figures, lively racing cars and a rat chef – the exhibition PIXAR: 25 Years of Animation at the MKG in Hamburg provides insights into the fascinating creative process of making animated films.
Computers play a key role in the making of the animated movies, but those films would not have been possible without the foundational work by illustrators, graphic designers, animation artists, and model sculptors. All photos courtesy: Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg.
A sculpture by Bruno Gironcoli installed in front of Strabag Haus Donau-City in Vienna. Photo 2007.
The Austrian Pavilion at Venice Biennale 2003
The pavilion of Austria, a building by Josef Hoffmann, is modern and proper, architecture meant to please. His lovely pavilion, meant to be a place for educated Kunstgenuss, is inhabited this year by works of the subversive goldsmith, sculptor of the subconscious, designer of the wicked – Bruno Gironcoli (born 1936-February 2010✝). This show could have been more, given the strength of Gironcoli´s work. It could have been a chapter from H.P. Lovecraft´s Necronomicon; it could have been a factory of the ghostly, the night in Freud´s mare, a House of Usher within Hoffmann´s picture-perfect house of Austria.
But it is not. It is Gironcoli´s art which still saves a show with modest ambition, put together by curators Kaspar König (director Museum Ludwig in Cologne) and Bettina M. Busse, the two commissioners selected by Austria´s state secretary of art, Franz Morak. In Austria, everything is “normalized” at last. Morak, a conservative politician, previously was a punk rock singer. Gironcoli still is the master of Freud´s Albtraum.
“I derive images from nature,” answers the hermit sculptor who doesn´t seem to like to explain much of his work, and it is difficult to overlook some of the recurring symbols such as cringing babies, animal heads, and metaphors of female organs. Cringing babies, electric vulvas, Austrian edelweiss patterns – all of this is also designed with painstaking craftsmanship, a quality dear to find these days.
Gironcoli´s sculptures are disturbing. They are machines of exploitation, monuments of obsessions, apparati of beauty and irony. He elaborates on the absurdity of life as if he is commissioned to design shrines for the late Godot, fusing imagery of Art Deco and Sci-fi into prayer wheels of a fourth industrial revolution where genetically engineered babies are Romulus and Remus and the wolverine is a sewing machine.
“My presence in the Giardini is an accident”, says the 69 year-old Gironcoli. After “hip” young artist groups like Gelitin and Granular Synthesis shown in the Austrian pavilion in the 2001 edition of Venice Biennale (commissioned by Elisabeth Schweeger) and in the general genius tempi, it indeed seems so. Gironcoli never was a member of a group or a movement, although selections from his drawings certainly show connections to Wiener Aktionismus of the 1950s and 1960s.
Surely, people with better talent for marketing have more visibility in the Venice Biennale, the global Las Vegas of art and vanities. Gironcoli´s art is of a kind rarely seen there, attention-grabbing without grabbing for attention. Hoffmann, the architect of the Austrian pavilion, was an adversary of Adolf Loos. Crime is a matter of definition, and so is ornament. Exploitation, cheap effects, vanity, it is all out there in the Giardini once you leave the temporary parallel universe of Gironcoli. Is it crime? What would Loos say, or Freud? You can still go back, to the Austrian pavilion and Gironcoli´s Untitled from 1975/76, a yellow painted Madonna in the golden wheat field on top of two toilets. It is a heile Welt, or holy world out there.
*This article was written on June 29th, 2003 for the summer issue of Contemporary Magazine in 2003. I would like to express my thanks to Professor Bruno Gironcoli for granting me his time for an interview at his atelier.
A closer look at the qualities of a successful design entrepreneur
The creative is the place where no one else has ever been. You have to leave the city of your comfort and go into the wilderness of your intuition. What you’ll discover will be wonderful. What you will discover is yourself. – Alan Alda
Many designers and creative workers embarked on design studies or design as a vocation for the aesthetic aspects of it; more than anything, designers like to play with form, colors, and texture. They also enjoy the creative freedom, defined by individual expression and not having to do with everyday monetary affairs.
Used by permission ® 2014 The LEGO Group
Times are changing. More and more advanced economies are rapidly shifting from manufacture-based to idea- based. It doesn’t mean tangible products are any less needed than before. More sophisticated products made from new and advanced materials coupled with improved functionality and style are always in demand. Brilliant design products and services are a combination of daring new ideas, clever concepts, innovative systems, and sensible executions. Ideas and knowledge are only of value if they are turned into successful products and services.
The legendary shoe designer turned Pop artist Andy Warhol famously said, «Being good in business is the most fascinating kind of art. Making money is art and working is art and good business is the best art.» Even the seemingly unbusinessman-like conceptual artist John Baldessari quipped that “Every artist should be a mini-entrepreneur.” Now, the most pricey British Young Artist Damien Hirst and a handful of fellow artists are managing their own business of producing and selling art, without the intervention of galleries and auction houses.
The same goes with most other creative fields, and design is no exception. Creative pursuit in ernest can only be supported and sustained through the business success of entrepreneurial activities. Design traditionally has been an entrepreneurial vocation since its beginnings in the early 20th century. Design has an entrepreneurial spirit and a hands-on attitude.
On the path of design entrepreneurship to creativity and innovation, there often lies rough patches and obstacles, too. Take one of the 20th century innovative design James Dyson. His most well-known Dyson vacuum cleaner had to wait 15 years from creation to actual production. Despite its apparent advange and much improved features – most prominently elimination of dustbags and smart application of G-Force cyclone technology – was faced with resistance from major multinational electronics manufacturers, until Japan issued a patent license and gave him the change to produce his concept in 1993. Until Dyson vacuum cleaners to become one of the icon of 20th century industrial design for its innovative technology and a successful business story, James Dyson tirelessly dedicated himself to hard-working, perseverance, and determination.
Merging of design consciousness and business acumen can be an influential force for socio-cultural change as well. New form has the power to stimulates new ways of thinking, new attitudes, and, indeed, new ways of life. Take all too well-known hero of design innovation – Steve Jobs of Apple. Since nearly 40 years being a visionary of Graphic User Interface (GUI) and mouse-controlled personal desktop computers, which we now take for granted, Jobs is an outstanding champion of good design integrated into technology that sets new trend in the way people see, live, and create.
Combining creative talent and business savvy is essential to be able to continue creative efforts. The success of a good design is a way to gain social recognition and cultural influence. Creativity is the goal and the business is the means. Here are some of the qualities often found in creative entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurs are inherently creative people. Turn the table around: creative people have inherent abilities to be entrepreneurial, too. Some of the most successful entrepreneurs such as Jeff Bezos (of Amazon.com), Steve Jobs (Apple), James Dyson (Dyson vacuum cleaners), and Richard Branson (Virgin) are all iconic examples who combined surprisingly novel ideas, knowledge, and market opportunities based on creative thinking.
Entrepreneurship means taking risks. Risks often result in great returns in terms of fame, social recognition, and wealth. But it only happens when risks are carefully studied, assessed, and calculated. A great entrepreneur is an individual with a passionate heart and a cold mind.
Born entrepreneurs are unstoppable starters but they are also tenacious endurers who rarely quit once they see the potential of success. As the Roman philosopher Seneca said, “There is no great genius without some touch of madness.” In fact, their energy is so great that they become living inspirations and models for others to follow.
Entrepreneurs create and vitalize economy. They thrive on the idea of self-reliance and high achievements. That is why entrepreneurship is good for the promoting economy by inspiring new work force, creating jobs, and propelling societies for advancement.
Vienna is fast becoming not only a popular holiday destination for tourists from Eastern Europe but also the place where Eastern European artists in need of a gateway to the platform in the larger art market gather. This year’s edition of Viennafair, self-acclaimed as the international contemporary art fair focused on the CEE, boasted a nearly 19% increase in attendance compared to the previous year. Only a few months later, when the Venice Biennale lifted its curtain for its 52nd edition in June, the Hungarian Pavilion surprised the visitors by presenting Andreas Fogarasi as its representing artist, a young Austrian artist born in Vienna to Hungarian parents.
Once again Vienna sees itself as the metropolis of new art from Central and Eastern Europe. As a welcome gesture to Bulgaria and Romania joining the EU this year, the Vienna city government invited Bulgarian curator Iara Boubnova to archive the inventories of Vienna’s contemporary art collection and to organize the inaugural exhibition “Long Time No See”(20 June-30 August) to mark the opening of the new MUSA, or Museum auf Abruf (Museum on the Demand) at a stone’s throw of Rathaus, the capital’s city hall.
Despite the concerns by some theorists such as Slovenian Marina Gržinić, who sees the Eastern European art scene being ‘branded’ often under the name of Balkan art, the legendary Harald Szeemann, even before having curated his large-scale survey on the contemporary Balkan art scene titled Blood & Honey at Essl Collection back in 2003, had worked with artists such as Marina Abramovich and Braco Dimitrijević early on in the 1970s in the Documenta. Vienna Künstlerhaus recently staged the International Print Triennial Krakow-Oldenburg-Wien 2007, an international joint effort to rediscover the spirit of Polish tradition of graphic art in times of the digital trends.
Artists hailing from behind the former Iron Curtain are coming into renewed attention. Galerie Ernst Hilger has been fine-tuning on the taste of the wealthiest visitors and art buyers in Vienna – Russians – with its recent show SPUTNIK (30 August-27 September) and Esterházy Palace showed off its ambition in contemporary art collecting with the Central Europe Revisited I (16 July-16 September) show.
Adela Demetja, 『Untitled』 from “VirtuAlbania” at Steirischer Herbst + Pavelhaus, 2006. Courtesy: Pavelhaus, Steiermark.
The subjects of burdens and traumas from the post-communist past are still the mainstay dealt with by artists from the former Eastern bloc, as seen, for instance, in the work by Sanja Ivekovic in Shooting Back (until 28 October, Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary). But younger artists are shifting their outlook towards the contemporary condition, seen for instance at “VirtuAlbania”, part of the annual Steirischer Herbst festival (Graz, 20 September-14 October) and “RE:PLACE” (Siemens_artLab, 4 October-10 November), which is presenting young artists from Bratislava commenting on the ‘twin cities’ – Vienna and Bratislava – and their common, and not always untroubled history re-seen in the contemporary context.
Highlights: Istanbul Now, Galerie Lukas Feichtner, 14 September-10 November
HYPERLINK “http://www.feichtnergallery.com/”http://www.feichtnergallery.com/ The Gallery mounted a show dedicated to the topic of the latest art scene in Istanbul. The exhibition presents 21 artists offering unique visual commentaries on the state of the nation’s capital.
Drago Persic Solo Exhibition, Engholm Engelhorn Galerie, 9 November-22 December http://www.engholmengelhorn.com/Freshly graduated from the Academy of the Fine Arts in Vienna, the young artist Drago Persic, born in Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina and currently working in Vienna has his first solo show.
*This article originally appeared in the Contemporary magazine issue no. 95 in 2008.
A view from the 『Belgrade Art Inc.: Moments of Change』 exhibition at Secession. 2004. Photo: Pez Hejduk Courtesy: Secession, Vienna.
Since centuries Vienna has been the melting pot of mid-European culture. Although Habsburg Austria could be defined as a forerunner of globalization until the outbreak of WW1, contemporary Austria still has to come to grips with the legacy of its Eastern neighbors. Bordering on 5 of the 10 new Eastern EU member nations, the country has traditionally been containing a significant number of minorities from those regions.
Being avant-garde by thinking on old links, Leopold Museum mounted its first survey exhibition on Polish Modernism of the interwar Europe two years ago. This year’s edition of Kunst Wien (held 7-10th of October at the Museum of Applied Arts in Vienna), the annual national-scale art fair which turned international this year for the first time, announced to the surprise of Viennese, that of 43 foreign exhibited galleries, more than 30 were participants from Eastern Europe. While the attention in this fair was mostly drawn to already internationally-recognized names with high price tags such as Franz West, Arnulf Rainer, Elke Krystufek, and Valie Export, it was less well known that quite a few up and coming Austrians artists such as Milica Tomic are originally from former Yugoslavia.
At Wiener Kuenstlerhaus, The New Ten is on view (until 16 January). Works by 20 younger artists selected from the new EU member countries are mirroring on the socio-political environment of the nations in question. Such an approach is not a new idea. Blood and Honey: Future is in Balkan, shown already in the summer of 2003 at Sammlung Essl, covered the most recent arts scene of the Balkan nations. This Harald Szeemann-trademarked exhibition included more than 70 young and mid-career artists eager to hop on the bandwagon of the Western art market. Mr Karlheinz Essl himself, the founder of Essl Collection and owner of an Austrian DIY and housing supply retail chain dominating the Eastern European market, has been conducting his own talent-search missions in the Eastern European and Balkan regions since several years.
More recently, if not more timely, the Belgrade Art Inc.: Moments of Change show at Secession and the smaller but cleverer Free Entrance: Art from Bratislava, Budapest, Ljubljana, and Vienna show at BAWAG Foundation this summer bore witness to many refreshing talents from the former Eastern Bloc which are not only fully keeping pace with the latest media language and technology but also excelling in witty and satirical commentaries. After this phase of artistic exploration of common themes old and new, artists from both sides of the former iron curtain will set the tone for a Europe which will hopefully never stop to explore itself.
Hightlights: The New Europe: Culture of Mixing and Politics of Representation, Generali Foundation in Wien, from 20 January until 24 April, HYPERLINK “http://foundation.generali.at” http://foundation.generali.at.Yet another show on the arts of Eastern Europe, this time curated by two Romanian-born guest curators. The show proposes to be a platform for examining and redefining the identity of old ‘New Europe’, as it struggles to overcome the East-West conflict resulting from socio-cultural differences.
Bettina Rheims: A Retrospective, Kunsthaus Wien, until 24 April, HYPERLINK “http://kunsthauswien.com” http://kunsthauswien.com.For those who were fascinated with the glamour and decadence of the roaring 1920s depicted in Tamara de Lempicka exhibition past winter, this will be the photographic parallel.
Nordic Dawn:Modernism’s Awakening in Finland 1890-1920, Austrian National Gallery Belvedere, from15 June until 2 October.An excellent opportunity to get a glimpse of the extensive quantity of works of modern art during the Turn-of-the-Century Finnish Modern era which was esteemed by Viennese modernists yet virtually unknown to the public to date.
* This article originally appeared in the Contemporary magazine issue no. 73 in 2005.
Exportable Goods – Danish Art Now | November 17th, 2006 – February 17th, 2007 | www.galerie-krinzinger.at/projekte/ | Curated by Severin Dünser.
Carlsberg, Lego and Bang & Olufsen are what comes to mind when Danish exports are the topic. This is quite remarkable already considering the size of this Nordic kingdom with about 6 million permanent citizens. There is also Arla foods, whose butter had been boycotted some time ago because of another Danish export, the now-infamous Muhammad cartoons. But there is more to Denmark than bad taste. Now there are also names such as Superflex, Rasmus Bjørn and Jesper Just to be included in the list.
Denmark is an architecture and design rather than an art nation, with household names such as Jørn Utzon, designer of the Sidney Opera House, Verner Panton, designer of the still-very-hip Panton chair, or Poul Kjærholm, an uncompromising advocate of solid crafts, good materials and intelligent construction, who sold his furniture mostly to Americans and Japanese while his compatriots were questioning if it wouldn’t be better to make it all in PVC.
Pia Rönicke, The Zone, 2005, 22:40 minutes, DVD. Courtesy: Andersen S Contemporary. Photo: Krinzinger Projekte.
Only 5 years ago something like an art gallery was a rare sight to be spotted in Copenhagen. All at once there is now a demand for domestic art, reason enough for a very contemporary art scene to thrive. Yet there is no area which could be called a gallery district. But it would not be Denmark if the government would not take care of any unmet needs, and so a new government-initiated art district is in the making.
In a scene as jaded as the contemporary art scene in most places these days, the Danish look a bit fresher. Superflex, a Copenhagen-based collaborative of three, show a neatly laid out table with ingredients and equipment for home beer brewing (Free Beer, Superflex, 2005). Perhaps a statement in the vein of open source computer software such as Linux, or an antithesis to Carlsberg , which only competes with Heineken and Bud for world dominance, or perhaps just a statement that the Danes like beer.
Video artist Jesper Just, whose Something to Love (2005) is on view, has been exhibiting intensely in the last few years on both sides of the Atlantic, including a solo exhibition at the Stedelijk in Amsterdam. A series of works captured in 16 mm film exploits a rather neglected topic in contemporary art – gender-mainstreamed identity politics. Just’s silent but emotionally tense Something to Love questions the traditional role of the Hollywood male, suggesting that it is okay for men to betray inner emotions and that, sometimes, boys cry, too.
Many works here are directly influenced by architecture and design: For instance, Rasmus Bjørn’s Goldie (2005), a baseball cap and bat adorned with pseudeo-commercial brand logos; Hein Jeppe’s neon hanging lamp; Michael Elmgreen & Ingar Dragset’s trolleys Coupled #1 (2002), which had been rendered dysfunctional by being joined together; and California-educated Pia Rönicke’s The Zone (2005), which features three young architects repeating some of the most abused buzzwords in the field of city planning, exposing how Danish architectural practice has plunged into use of thoroughly void Modernist clichés.
Form doesn’t always follow function, but here it is all too tempered. Nothing here is meant to challenge, provoke or offend. Since the infamous cartoons, the Danish pride in freedom of expression seems to have been bruised, or as the Danish writer Poul Borum said, ‘ Art is for everybody, but not everybody knows it.’ And in the end, even the insightful socio-institutional critique provided by something like Elmgreen & Dragset’s dysfunctional trolleys is ultimately just another lucrative export.
* This article originally appeared in the Contemporary magazine issue no. 92 in 2007.
David Bowie said he decided to become a rock star in order to leave his native suburban neighborhood. Matt Groening became a cartoon star by turning his suburbia experience into The Simpsons. Once standing for the utopia of a peaceful life, it has become the site of a zombie apocalypse (witness the comedy film Shaun of the Dead (2004)). Now Cameron Jamie’s observations on suburban desperation make for good theater also in contemporary art.
Since his international breakthrough in the exhibition Let’s Entertain (Au-délá du spectacle) at Centre Pompidou, Paris in 2000, an array of his works has been under review by some of the major art venues back home. His video works Spook House (1997-2000), BB(2000), Kranky Klaus(2002-3) and more recently JO (2004), featuring music by Japanese musician Keiji Haino, are on view at this year’s version of the Whitney Biennial under the banner title ‘Day for Night’(through May 28th). The Wrong Gallery – a prankish exhibition project launched by curators Maurizio Cattelan, Massimiliano Gioni and Ali Subotnick, who also organized the 2006 edition of the Berlin Biennale 4, includes Cameron Jamie in its talent roster. Now his most comprehensive solo show in America is to be mounted this summer (July 16th-October 18th) at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis.
Cameron Jamie was a suburban kid trapped in a sleepy working-class neighborhood in southern California. He describes his childhood in his hometown, San Fernando Valley, as something like a mental confinement. Thanks to the Northridge earthquake, he was able to escape from suburbia in 1994, eventually into Paris, France, ‘the city’ of culture and sophistication and surely a nice place to work on clearing his suburban childhood backlog. But then dreary suburbia is everywhere, even in Paris.
There are backyard wrestlers, Austrian mountainfolk in their traditional pre–Christmas „Perchten“ dance and French Neo-Nazis as seen through the eyes of a home video ethnographer in search of the odd. Primitive are the others, we learn from Cameron Jamie, and they are now no longer in remote continents, as was the case with 19th century colonialists, but in our own backyard. While the likes of Picasso found the ‘primitive’ an inspiration for artistic renewal, here we get to see oddities mainly for their oddity-value, and one of them is Jamie himself: in his self-portrayal video The New Life (1996), the artist disguises himself as a wrestler dressed in long Johns and a self-made mask and engages in some clumsy two-some action with a Michael Jackson look-alike.
Cameron Jamie’s drawings are self-portraits to his statement that his “inside had died and what had been buried come out as zombies.” He doesn´t do all of his zombie drawings by himself though. In the Maps and Composite Actions series, produced in 2003, he collaborated with Dutch graphic artist Erik Wielaert, who illustrated scenes which have been vocally described by the artist. Dressed up as Dracula with a large comforter, he is depicted as a lonesome poseur in a large black cape and white socks in a bizarre LA taxi scene. In Composite Action 2, Dracula is roaming in the suburban night street on a white horse, perhaps inspired by horrid images of Rip Van Winkle in The Legend of the Sleepy Hollow. Composite Action 3 depicts a scene in a 24-hour supermarket, where the artist enters as a limping hunchback Dracula and spooks late evening shoppers.
His drawings are linked to his videos and performances. Inspired by images of goats, devil masks, and spilt gut, there are remote resemblances to the Graffiti Art of Jean-Michel Basquiat, the expressive scribbles by Art Brut master Jean Dubuffet, or occasionally to Cy Twombly. Some of more recent drawings from 2004-2005 have taken on more in the manner of stream-of-consciousness sketches consisting of thin continuous lines with no distinguishable beginning or end. Doodles used to be preparatory scribbles for the creative mind. But for Jamie drawings are annotations to his videotapes that suburbs are indeed odd and folk rituals are primitive.
*This article originally appeared in Contemporary21 no. 83 (Special issue on Drawing, 2006).
Angus Fairhurst, The Problem with Banana Skins, Divided Inverted, 1998, Polyurethanobjekt, 7 x 36 x 36 cm Photo: EVN Collection, Maria Enzersdorf.
“Everything stays better (Alles bleibt besser),” promises the current chancellor who is running for his third term in the national election this October – A fitting slogan for the Austrian angst of anything that might change and an illustration for something that has changed, albeit in a frog-in-a-slowly-heated-up-pot manner, especially concerning art.
In the meanwhile, on Tuchlauben, Vienna’s elegant street in the city center, a taste of bitterness lingers at Bawag Foundation’s “Nothing but Pleasure” show, examining absurdity and irony from its contemporary collections, as if it is a metaphor for the recent Worker’s Union-owned Bawag Bank scandal which will eventually end in the Bank’s liquidation.
This summer, the Culture Minister, after years of haggling, did let go of Nazi-looted art by Gustav Klimt to the niece of Adele Bloch-Bauer after a dictum by an American court. In the face of losing a pre-eminent cultural treasure that once shaped the zeitgeist of the Modernist era, the Austrian public showed nonchalance. There was more sympathy with the Saliera, or rather with its snatcher, who took the treasure out of the Kunsthistorisches Museum three years ago without the annoying hindrance of an alarm or security guards and the help of a convenient scaffolding. Right next to it, on Heldenplatz, the most obvious installation this year was an oversized “Mozartkugel “, a chocolate ball respected by tourists and locals alike, a fitting sight to celebrate the Mozart-year – besides Amadeus salmon, Mozart yoghurt drinks, and Mozart sausages.
Although, or because, art dealers and city-run museums as well as artists are left on their own devices since 2000, when umbrella for state-patronage was removed, some of the Viennese contemporary galleries on Seilerstätte and Schleifmühlgasse have recently been the most aggressive promoters at major international art fairs. Austria showed off 22 contemporary galleries at ARCO ‘06 in February. The Viennafair 2006, sponsored by Erste Bank (a newcomer in the Austrian corporate art collection), took place this April with an emphasis on Eastern European art and an unprecedented power-selling attitude. 20 days in September and October will see the launch of the brand new “Vienna Biennale,” a slightly misleading title as it will take the shape of a fairground for young artists rather than of a thematic biennale.
Exhibition Recommendations: Kunsthalle Wien, Paraflows 06 – Annual Convention for Digital Art and Culture in Vienna, September 9-16th, HYPERLINK “http://www.paraflows.at/” http://www.paraflows.at/ shows current digital creativity and state of net culture through local and international projects at various Viennese art spaces.
Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien(MUMOK), Joseph Beuys from the MUMOK Collection, August 4th-October 29th, HYPERLINK “http://www.mumok.at/” http://www.mumok.at/ Marking the 20th anniversary of the death of Joseph Beuys, Vienna’s MUMOK is showing previously never shown drawings and sculptures which had been done for his various exhibitions in Vienna during the 1970’s and 1980’s.
Generali Foundation, …Concept Has Never Meant Horse, September 15th-December 17th, HYPERLINK “http://foundation.generali.at/” http://foundation.generali.at/ Titled from a quote by Daniel Buren, the exhibition presents socio-politically focused conceptual works from the 1960-70’s from its collection.
Francesca von Habsburg and T-B A21(Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Contemporary Space in Progress)
Art collecting has throughout history been an exclusive pastime for aristocrats and the wealthy. After World War II in Austria, the new social democratic government took over this role, creating a climate of relative liberalism in which most art projects were supported by the federal government. Since the takeover of the conservative-right wing coalition in 2000 and the forces of the free market which accompanied this, an increasing number of museums and public galleries have complained of being starved of funding.
In this situation it appears to have been a logical move for Francesca von Habsburg, wife of the grandson of the last Austro-Hungarian monarch Franz Joseph II, to have chosen Vienna once again as a location of aristocratic collecting. To paraphrase Hans Christian Andersen, the empress got a new dress, and it’s name was T-B A21. The heritage of art collecting in Francesca von Habsburg’s family begun with the legacy of her grandfather Heinrich Thyssen, an ardent collector of 17th and 18th century old masters and her father Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza, a Forbes list billionaire, who built up the world’s second largest private art collection, which is now installed in the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza in Madrid.
Francesca von Habsburg is now expanding on this family tradition, utilizing qualities that are scarce in a scene dominated by the interests of politics and the free market: audacity, taste, and, of course, means. Unlike her ancestors though, she follows a distinctively more contemporary style. Located on the prestigious Himmelpfortgasse, near Seilerstatte in the city center, an area tightly packed with government administrative offices and home to several well-established Viennese commercial galleries, at a first glance T-B A21 exudes an air of understatement considering its collection of some 400 contemporary art works by dozens of international artists.
“I have come from an extremely traditional view on collecting based on the generations before me and what my father achieved,” Habsburg states. For her and the Thyssen family before her, an art collection is about the collector’s vision, not just about individual art works. She collects works by both established and emerging artists whom she values as those that will stand the test of time and testimony for many years to come. In order to achieve that, she commissions new works or projects in the context of TB-A21-organized exhibitions rather than buying individual works that have been already widely publicized.
T-B A21 is now arguably the most noteworthy private collections with a contemporary and conceptual focus in Austria, comparable only to the insurance-owned Generali Foundation and the BAWAG Foundation, which is run by one of the largest banks in the country. Also, in Vienna most public art institutions and projects are government funded, and thus are heavily influenced by their policies. T-B A21 however has clearly set out to be an important private patron with a bureaucratic upper hand. For example, the spectacular installations comprised of heaps of rubbish and construction materials by John Bock and Christoph Schlingensief which were displayed last summer, had they been in normal museums or commercial galleries, could have had faced with much difficulty convincing Austria’s notoriously rigid Building Regulation Authority (known as the Baupolizei) for safety reasons.
On the 20th of April, 2004, T-B A21 launched its official opening with an audio-based installation exhibition by Canadian, Berlin-based multi-media artist Janet Cardiff. Since then, it has mounted some of the most experimental contemporary art shows in Vienna. Puppets were a familiar sight last summer with Dan Graham, Tony Oursler and Rodney Graham’s puppet rock-opera Don’t Trust Anyone over Thirty (2005) which was commissioned by T-B A21 and presented at the annual Vienna Festival. The accompanying show at T-B A21, ‘Puppets and Heavenly Creatures,’ exhibited works by these artists as well as Paul McCarthy, John Bock and Jason Rhoades. Recently in Deseos Fluidos – Brazilian and Cuban Perspectives between Reality and Fantasy Brazilian artist Ernesto Neto showed his Humanoídes (2001), figurine sculptures made of Lycra and Styrofoam that visitors were invited to inhabit and explore. Deseos Fluidos was a colorful and creative potpourri with a distinctively sun-drenched and ironic quality, providing a much needed artistic antidepressant, especially during Vienna’s dreary winter days. While Brazilian Rivane Neuenschwander showed an unpretentious installation with colored tape and balls, perhaps the most outstanding and humourous piece was Portaviones (2005), a swimming pool which had been converted into a battleship (or maybe vice versa), by Cuban artist group Los Carpinteros.
Art in T-B A21 is also tailor-made on imperial order as the gallery likes to commission works from hip artists. For example, in March last year, Germany’s rising star Jonathan Meese staged a multi-tech opera performance at the Unter den Linden State Opera House in Berlin. Christoph Schlingensief also showed the spooky installation Animatograph (2005) and will move his blankets and slide projectors to both Neuhadenberg and Namibia. Olafur Eliasson presented his conceptual installation Your Black Horizon (2005) at the temporary pavilion designed by David Adjaye at the Venice Biennale and in December Candice Breitz exhibited her homage to Bob Marley. From April to July this year Kutlug Ataman will present his 40 channel video installation Küba (2005-6), on an artistic river cruise from Istanbul to Vienna, certainly a timely piece considering that Vienna last summer was full of right-wing election propaganda and slogans such as ‘Vienna must not become Istanbul.’
T-B A21 labels itself as a space for the contemporary. But the new today is old news tomorrow, and some of the better pieces in Francesca’s collection might well manage to join the family collection in the Museo Thyssen-Bornemizsa in Madrid. ‘Look at the Emperor’s new clothes. They’re beautiful!’ people clamored in Andersen’s tale. Francesca’s gallery is really beautiful, and colorful at that.
* This article originally appeared in Contemporary 21 Special Issue on Collections no.80 in 2006.’
« John Baldessari, “I am Making Art”, black and white video, 1971.
The body is the all-time favourite hit theme in Vienna. Vienna, arguably, being the cradle of post-war Europe body art and performance responsible for Fluxus movement, exhibitions dedicated to Wiener Aktionismus, or Viennese Actionism were widely in evidence. Hermann Nitsch, whose historical St. Marx performance orgy of blood and dead animals in the 1960s, had his retrospective show at Essl Collection (until 11 January). Günter Brus, another pillar figure for this movement whose works marked by self-inflicted injury and brutality to the extreme, had his first Retrospective at Albertina (7 November – 8 February). Another Actionist and founder of utopian artists community Friedrichshof Commune, Otto Muehl undisclosed painting works since his gestural action of destroying easel canvases in 1962 (Otto Muehl. Life, Art, Work – Action Utopia Painting 1960-2004 at MAK,).
Today, Vienna is clearly moved away from the radicalism of the 1960s and the 1970s. The fourth sequence of the five-part ‘Performative Installation’ Body Display: Body and Economy at the Secession, for one, puts the question of body and matter of money in a contemporary on-stage context. John Bock’s inexpensively-constructed installation, adorned with sex toys and disjointed limbs and torsos of dolls, is a metaphor of bodies helplessly exposed to vulnerability. The gap between artist´s aspirations and realities becomes once again visible in the display of Austrian Svetlana Heger’s body, transformed into an advertising billboard for luxury brands.
That bodies Speak has been known for a long Time – indeed, and exactly with that title Dass die Körper sprechen, auch das wissen wir seit langem, an exhibition at Generali Foundation examined the theme with 23 artists. In Kunsthalle Wien, one finds St. Sebastian : A Splendid Readiness for Death, an enlightening exhibition on the representation of the arrow-punctured Catholic gay martyr and patron saint of plague and AIDS, surveying the aesthetics of sado-masochism, physical torment, and death. Within all these displays of flesh and blood, Innocy, a cuddly monster made by Japanese artist Shintaro Miyake (Krinzinger Projekte), earned sympathy when he made a surprise appearance cum performance at Vienna’s traditional Café Prückl, the favorite café of art students, right next to MAK, where director Peter Noever continued his blame game against the government for freezing his budget.
Arts Secretary Franz Morak for his part invited criticism from the artists’ community with a newly proposed social security plan that would result in reduced benefit, particularly for artists with low level of output. Not all is lost, though, as Vienna’s City Cultural Council boasted that it secured its annual funding of €1.2 million at hand for disposal to initiate a public arts project called Kunst für öffenlichen Raum, (Art for Public Space, that is). Also financially troubled Künstlerhaus, whose entrance door remained shut since last October(after its last show Abstract Now), said it will resume its contemporary arts exhibitions from April. In the meanwhile, Viennese galleries are anticipating a radically new version of KunstWien art fair from the year 2005 (prospective fair days are 20-24 April). Ths annual art fair of regional scale suffered drastic fall in attendance and sales as the event dates collided with London’s new Frieze Fair.
Eva Hesse: Transformations, Kunsthalle Wien in Museumsquartier, 5 March – 23 May 2004. ‘The Sojourn in Germany 1964/65’ – so goes and subtitle of the show, and it will feature over 60 drawings, collages, gouaches, and reliefs as well as sculptures Hesse produced during her one year stay in Kettwig(near Essen), Germany, where the artist presumably had an impetus to move on to minimalistic tendencies. Also included in the exhibition are personal documents such as calendar notes and travel diaries to catch a glimpse at the artist’s inner conflicts and developments.
From the Pages of My Diary, Atelier Augarten Zentrum für zeitgenössische Kunst der Österreichen Galerie Belvedere, From 20 February and onward. This on-line arts project initiated by Atelier Augarten, contemporary exhibitions center within Austria’s National Galerie Belvedere, presents the works of various artists of the moment in series throughout this year. Featuring artists include: Christy Astuy, Tatiana Bazzichelli, Betty Bee, Roberto Cascone, E.G.Ø, Frank Gassner, Marcus Geiger & Marcus Geiger, Gelatin, Francesco Impellizeri, Lucia Leuci, Marko Lulic, Ezia Mitolo, Vegetali Ignoti, Erwin Wurm. www.casaluce-geiger.net
Art & Rebellion (Viennese Actionism Archive), MUMOK (Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien), MUMOK Factory, 12 February – 25 April 2004. As any serious museums and private collections in Vienna, MUMOK in Museumsquartier holds a comprehensive Viennese Actionism collection and auxiliary documents which has been put to permanent show since last summer. This show features archived documents, including photos, original manuscripts, notes, personal sketches and publications obtained from recent purchase (Friedrichshof Collection) and gifts from artists (Günter Brus and Hermann Nitsch).
* This article originally appeared in the Contemporary magazine issue no. 62 in 2004.
Jungle: How did you first get yourself exposed to the world of graphic design, and what formal/informal education or trainings did you have before you started your professional career as a designer?
Peter Bilăk: I started studying back in Czechoslovakia at the Academy of Fine Arts and Design in Bratislava. While studying there, I went for an exchange programme to England and to the US. After finishing my internship in the US, I went on to study to ANCT (Atelier National de Création Typographique) in Paris to focus on type design and typography. I worked for a year in a big agency, but left and I received a research grant at the Jan van Eyck Akademie in Maastricht, NL where I spent two years working on a video-based project on reading. From there my route lead to Studio Dumbar in The Hague.
Jungle: What teachers, artists, movements helped form or change your perspectives about typography and graphic design? How your international experiences (U.K, U.S. France, and currently the Netherlands) have formed you and your work?
PB: Every experience in the course of my studies was extremely useful and invaluable, I learned different things home in Slovakia then in the US or France. It is difficult to compare, and pinpoint the best. And there are so many people I admire…
Jungle: As a Slovakian designer, how much do you value and treasure the history and heritage of Czechoslovak typography? And how do your ideas reflect in your design?
PB: The Czech type designers such Menhard, Preissig or Hlavsa have got me interested in the profession at the first place. I didn’t realise at that time how unique were the Czech books that I had at my disposal. The tradition is fundamentally different then the French or Dutch one; Czechoslovak designers always worked in complicated situations and were forced to look for very creative solutions. There was a big gap and a period of silence in the 70s and 80s, but fortunately with political changed in the country and technological development the tradition survived and is blossoming.
Today I work in the Netherlands where the esthetical and functional values in design are very high. But I can’t forget and deny my own roots. An artist in Czechoslovakia has always a special position. They didn’t only have a role of artist adding value of society but carried direct responsibilities; they were often socially and politically involved.
Jungle: How did you come by with the ideas for the ‘Illegibility’ book?
PB: I started working on the Illegibility project in the US, and its background is the wild development of digital typography in the early 90s. By that time, I have designed a series of fonts some of which were published by FontShop. Illegibility came naturally as a next step, and more theoretical base for my work. It was challenging to start working with the written word after I have been playing around with its form. Today, I feel a big distance from this project.
Jungle: And Transparency?
PB: Transparency is a result of one year sobering in France. I got interested in linguistics which later resulted in the Transparency book. The by-product of this interest was also Eureka which preceded Transparency. The book is arguing that typography is fully dependent on technological, social and political development.
The Transparency project is not intended to romanticise graphic design; it is about provoking independent thinking. The subjectivity of today’s graphic design is unlimited and leaves enough space for more than one interpretation. We must respect the reader’s right to interpret the message. Graphic designers should be the most sensitive readers, offering their work to other readers who reconstruct the meaning individually. Designers have the opportunity to ask questions, to discover textual complexities and introduce readers to new feelings.
Jungle: You mention the emotive and expressive nature and aspects of typographic design. How are they manifested in, for instance, Eureka?
PB: Eureka is closely connected to the Transparency project, in fact it was designed with the intention to have a typefaces that can be used to longer bilingual text. Because most of the fonts used in Central and Eastern Europe are of Western origin, they don’t really respect the local culture and language. There are many fonts which totally ignore the linguistic particularities.
Some fonts work well when used in Dutch or English, but used in languages which have many accented characters they are not adequate. Eureka is a direct response to this. I was observing different reading rhythm in different languages, and studying what causes it. Eureka has adjusted proportion to accommodate accents which are very important in Czech or Slovak for example.
Of course, Eureka is not only a visual response to a set of problems, it is also a formal experiment, and a learning process. Because of the long process (five years) I learned a lot. When I see the first versions of Eureka I can’t believe how many mistakes and inconstancies there are. But I guess this quirkiness adds font some character.
Jungle: There are many literary fans for Milan Kundera in Korea, as most of his published books have been translated into Korean were always successful in charting the bestseller list. Regarding your notes on the Problems of translation of Kundera’s work, how does it relate to your attitude towards design?
PB: As you might have gathered I am a big fan of Kundera myself. In his body of work, he has been striving to devise a his own definition of novel. A novel that is not reducible to a story or adaptable to e.g. theatre play, film script or comic strip. Kundera makes an argument that if a novel survives an adaptation or rewriting it is a proof of its low quality. Finding a unique form of expression (in writing or in visual communication) is a very interesting point in todays’ information saturation. I also came to a conclusion that if I want to develop a specific way of working, I cannot ignore the outside world, I need to be able to react to everyday stimuli and have my eyes and ears open. This is essentially contradictory to a definition of ‘style’, which many designers are trying to develop. I find inspiring finding inspiration outside of the design limits. Kundera’s way of thinking can be easily projected to, for example, graphic design. Kundera developed his own way of language of relativity and ambiguity which despises comfortable classification into good or bad. Similarly to Kundera, I also dislike answering the question before knowing the question. People tend to judge before they know enough. This is probably a simple human condition: making a sense out of the world around. Applying it to design, this results in signature style, the lowest of styles. But style is the content, and doesn’t need to be revealed only on the surface.
Jungle: What part are you taking in Vienna’s art project ‘Museums in Progress’? It was a collaboration with artist Eran Schaerf. We have met in Maastricht and shared some ideas. When Eran was invited to work in Vienna he invited me for a collaboration in the project.
PB: A long term project is ‘dot dot dot’ magazine which we started last year in May. I was working with different magazines before, in our magazine we are trying to correct do everything we disliked or thought was wrong. Dot dot dot is intended to fill a gap in current arts publishing. We are not interested in re-promoting established material or creating another ‘portfolio’ magazine. Instead, we offer inventive critical journalism on a variety of topics related both directly and indirectly to graphic design. Most interesting if collaborating with other people on contributions. Since we have very limited budget for production and no money to pay our contributors, we really work only with the those who have heart at the right place and are really engaged in the subjects they working on.
Jungle: Your future plans or wishes?
PB: Currently we are preparing already a third issue of ‘dot dot dot’, the magazine is a constant challenge, it has its own life and we are not even sure where is it leading. We have our own scope of interests which are visible in the magazine, but we have no themes or long term plans. At this moment comes also a major career turn. After time spent working at Studio Dumbar, I am starting my own studio to focus on my projects. I hope to combine self-initiated projects such ‘dot dot dot’ with commissioned work in graphic design and typography. I am finishing some typefaces for FontShop, and hoping to do some custom commissioned fonts. After organising an exhibition of Dutch graphic design in Brno, I had clear ideas how graphic design could be presented in a book form. Together with Stuart Bailey I am preparing a book proposal which is a reaction to conventional cafe table books. And I keep my eyes and ears open to enjoy the world. The magazine was founded by Jurgen Albrecht, Tom Unverzagt, Stuart Bailey and myself. White the first two are still involved, Stuart and I are taking most of editorial responsibilities.
* Jina Park interviewed Peter Bilak for Design Jungle Korea , May 2nd, 2001. See this inteview in Korean here.
JEAN-FRANÇOIS PORCHEZ INTERVIEW IN MAGAZINE JUNGLE
JUNGLE: Which teachers, artists, or movements helped form or change your perspectives about typography and typographic design?
JEAN-FRANÇOIS PORCHEZ: I discovered typeface design through Calligraphy during my first year of graphic courses with my teacher of calligraphy Ronan Le Henaff, who himself at this time was learning type design at Atelier national de Création Typographique (National Workshop for Type Design, abbr. ANCT). For the next two years, I continued to explore type design with other students from ANCT (who were also teachers in my school!).
Jean-François Porchez won the First Prize at Morisara International Typography Award with typeface Angie in 1990.
During the last year at ANCT, I decided to start creating a set of complete typeface to understand all aspect of the design: now FF Angie. During theses years, I was commissioned by several packaging and corporate identity agencies to do some lettering and logotype work. I also discovered Bernard Arin, who was leading and teaching at the Scriptorium de Toulouse from 1968. He opened my mind about type design, that it has to be rooted in scriptures and calligraphy studies. Calligraphy became my initial reference when I started first designing typefaces.
But quickly, I understood that books can provide much more information and resources for “self-teaching” than actual teachers. Books were instruments to find my own personal way. I discovered that the books of typographic history were mainly written in English, so I started to learn English by reading books on typefaces! In those years, there was no real equivalent in French. The situation has changed now.
My references are mainly from books. As I remember, Twentieth Century Type Designers by Sebastian Carter, Anatomy of Typeface by Alexander Lanson, Hermann Zapf and His Design Philosophy by Zapf himself, and Letters of Credit by Walter Tracy gave all my first understanding of my future job. By the time when I have been accepted to ANCT (which changed its direction the same year), I considered myself that I already knew about type design. My winning of the first prize for the typeface proposed to Morisawa Awards before ANCT proved that. This special one year at this school was only to reaffirm my determination: I’m going to be an type designer!
JUNGLE: As a French designer, how much do you value and treasure the history and tradition of French typography? And how are your ideas reflected in your design? What, in your opinion, is the most essential element in typographic design?
JFP: The Rencontres internationales de Lure (French equivalent of ATypI created in the fifties by Maximilien Vox, creator of Vox-ATypI typeface classification) is the main link to French type tradition. People like Gérard Blanchard (died last year) showed me “my” French roots. We discussed many times about type history and contemporary type design. In France, there is a big generational gap between young and old type designers. There is nobody from the same generation of people like Erik Spiekermann or Sumner Stone. But the Rencontres internationales de lure helped me to meet and discuss with people like Ladislas Mandel and René Ponot, who by their knowledge opened my mind to French tradition and viewpoints that I understand very well, because I compared their vision to the Anglo-Saxon typographic philosophy.
Each country has its own culture, regarding typefaces. I strongly think that the typeforms can’t be the same in all countries, first because our languages are structurally different and a type designer “dreams” his new typefaces in his own language! Natural rhythm in German texts is really more contrasted than Latin or French. For example, German designers like Zapf or Spiekermann naturally designed more structured, straight, square and low-width contrasted forms of letters. In reverse, I design a text typeface more contrasted in forms widths to give more life to my texts to balance the low contrasted French text language.
JUNGLE: Have your perspectives about typography changed during your professional career? For instance, your perspectives as a student, as a career-launching young designer, and as an established designer as now? If so, how?
JFP: I don’t think so. It’s a too long a process to design fonts.
JUNGLE: How many new typefaces are turned out (or released) at which frequency? And tell us about your workshop Typofonderie?
JFP: I don’t know! I currently work on two families for clients and two for my own. The first was the extension of the Parisine that I design in 1995/96 for the Paris Métro signages to optimize legibility and economy of space, in bold and bold italic at this time. I was asked to create an 12 series families (6 romans and 6 italics). I will probably finish it next month. The second was a family more distinctive in term of style, designed for Costa Croicières, a large Italian company specializing in boat trips and selling holidays mainly via catalogues printed in many different languages. The new family fonts are more distinctive and unique compared to their concurrents. It’s a 4-series family from Light to Bold.
I am also trying to complete a new part of Le Monde family called Le Monde Livre Classic, which features alternative forms for many letters of the original Le Monde Livre. This new family is designed to give more historical roots to composed text, as I will provide many ligatures, alternates and ornaments. The Italic is declined in two variations from Standard Italic (but more flowery than the LM Livre original) to Swash version. Lastly, in parallel to Parisine family, I am developing a Parisine Plus which features more original forms and alternates in the same way as Le Monde Livre Classic. Also very different from Parisine is an San-serif typeface family.
JUNGLE: When you work with clients – as they usually look for a tailored and exclusive appearance in the typefaces, how do you approach and convince them? Could you give us an example from your former or present clients.
JFP: Because I have been teaching since a long time, I understand very well that it’s important to explain many aspect of work to future clients. For example, I contacted Le Monde newspaper to propose an exclusive typeface that they never asked. I voluntarily offered my presentation of my new typefaces. After only few weeks of discussions, they decide to buy it! Because they understood how a carefully adapted typeface can optimize legibility and provide them with a strong typographical identity. The newspaper increased in sales after that, but not only because of the new typeface but also the new layout of the newspaper. I was very proud of that, as Le Monde is actually the only French newspaper that uses a custom typeface family in France.
JUNGLE: You obviously contribute actively to teaching as well as publications both in journals and books in the field of typographic design. What are the topics of your lectures and courses, and what are your aims in teaching?
JFP: I always think that parallel typographical activities gives good opportunities to better understand my work. I contribute to associations like ATypI, for an improvement of typography in general. Last year I published Lettres Franacises, a specimen of all French contemporary digital typefaces to promote the French typography throughout the world. This book, published in French/English, includes some essays by Gérard Unger (outside view), Gérard Blanchard (inside view) and several texts on French typographical schools, list of most typefaces created from the beginning of this century, etc..
I wrote from a couple of years many articles on contemporary international type designers such as Matthew Carter, David Berlow’ Font Bureau, Gérard Unger, LettError, Carol Twombly, etc for French graphic design magazine Étapes and several articles, essays for ATypI Type Journal and related publications. I also organized type events in France like the last ATypI conference MultiTypo 98, where 500 people came from all over the world to attend more than 28 lectures, exhibits, group discussions, visits, and etc. Yes, I taught typography from my first year of activity in several Parisian schools, now I keep only an high level Type design course at École Nationale des Arts Décoratifs in Paris.
JUNGLE: What is your latest interest or fascination in terms of your source of inspiration for the new typeface design?
JFP: I learned to design typefaces on paper, but quickly, like many graphic designers, I moved to computer design. Now, I design my typefaces directly on screen from scratch with Burmerster curves. But when I need to more wrote forms, I scan some roughs or calligraphies to provide me with better sources. Sometimes, it is quicker to draw letters in small sizes (less than 2 centimeters high caps) on papers than directly on the screen. I don’t what to be software-dependent, when software can offer what I ask. I change it for another or work on paper!
I started in the early nineties with URW Ikarus specialized software for digitization of paper forms. After that I worked on Macromedia Fontographer, sometimes with Illustrator. Now it’s a mix of Fontographer, Robofog and FontLab and some small Apple and Microsoft softwares for very specialized fine-tuning. I like the philosophy of Robofog more and more, because this software is created by LettError and other Dutch typography designers for type designers! The concept is that you use script written in Python language to create and produce your fonts, so the software has no limits anymore. All the users are at all times in interaction with the developers by mailing lists. When we ask for a new function that we can’t do by our own scripts, they update Robofog very easily and quickly for us.
The computer tools have no direct influence on my forms; my influences come from my readings, most of the time historical. Latin type forms have already 2,000 years of history, so when you know past very well, you know what you can do or not when you design new fonts. I adapt my forms to current technology rather than the the other way around!
JUNGLE: Finally, we come to the last question to wrap up. What is your view about non-Roman alphabetical fonts? Are there any particular foreign letter forms other than Roman alphabets which interests you?
JFP: Cultural aspect of writing and typefaces are fundamental, so without a good knowledge of a particular language, in written form and the culture of the people using them, you cannot design good typeface. The transposition of experience in Latin forms can help only for technical aspect of non-Latin forms, never for the forms themselves, or the finished typeface looks strange to a potential user. The history shows too many cases of such bad examples. So, I have only the ambitions to continue some typefaces extensions to Cyrillic and Grècs because Latin have common Mediterranean ground. I work currently on Le Monde Cyrillic. My Grand Mother was Russian origin!
* This interview originally appeared in Magazine Jungle in Korean posted September 16th, 1999. See also article here.